Harbin Institute of Technology
General English Admission Test
For Non-English Major Ph.D. program
Part I Reading Comprehension (40%)
Directions: Each of the following passages is followed by some questions. For each
question four choices are given. READ the passages carefully and choose the best
answer to each of the questions ,Then put your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.
Questions 1----5 are bashed on the following passage.
In Japan, some people play golf on weekends and some form long lines in the Ginza district
to watch first-run foreign films. A knowing few go to the barbershop.
A trip to a Japanese barbershop is an odyssey into the country's economic miracle, a glimpse
at the same attention to detail that has made "Japan Inc." the envy of the capitalist world.
It is more than simply getting a haircut. Customers go to escape the hustle and bustle of
Tokyo's frenetic pace. They go to complain about local politics and catch up on the latest
But most of all, they go to be cranked up high in the barber's chair, to assume for at lest one
precious moment – regardless of their walk of life---that honorific stature uniquely revered in
Japan: that of okyakusama, or customer.
So going to the barbershop here is an outing . The object is not to get it over with as quickly
as possible, American-style, but to prolong the treatment and bask in its sensual pleasures.
No one understands this better than Tanaka-san, who runs a state-of-the-art barbershop just
up the street from where I live, in the Minami Azabu district. Like much else in Japan, Mr.
Tankaka's shop has only recently gone upscale.
Last year, he sold his small, old shop, located a few blocks from the new one, for a cool
$15.3 million. With typical Japanese foresight for investing for the long pull, Mr. Tanaka plowed
the proceeds into his spanking new premises.
Mr. Tanaka, 54, has been in the barbering business for 38 years. Back in 1950, he charged
only 35 yen --- not much compared with the 3,200 yen he receives today for a cut and shampoo.
At today's exchange rates, $22 for a haircut might seem expensive, but I think it's one of the best
deals in town.
You always have to wait in line at Mr. Tanaka's shop : He doesn't take reservations because
he doesn't need to. But when your time comes, Mr. Tanaka directs you to the seat of honor.
Soon his wife is feverishly shampooing your hair, massaging your scalp with a special brush.
While she scrubs, Mr. Tanaka is busy at the next chair, applying the finishing snips and snaps to
another client. This tag-team approach keeps the shop running at full capacity.
Mr. Tanaka typically spends about 45 minutes cutting your hair, scrutinizing the symmetry
of the sideburns with the utmost care. His cutting skills are superb, but it is in conversation that he
truly excels. He knows when to talk, when to listen and when to utter the drawn-out guttural grunt
of approval so common in Japanese. These insightful yet subtle dialogues with his clients create
the cornerstone of Mr.Tanaka's thriving business: the repeat customer, every retailer's dream.
For the rare client not "hooked" by pleasant conversation , Mrs. Tanaka's shaving
technique, with a straight-edged razor, is the showstopper. First, she places a hot towel over your
face, then wipes your face with moisturizing oil.
She applies another hot towel to remove the oil and lathers you up with warm shaving
cream. Finally, she methodically spends fifteen minutes shaving off every last whisker---including
any stray hairs that might have found their way to your forehead or earlobes. The oil and hot-towel
procedure is repeated and the reclining customer is gently coaxed into returning to earth.
Foreign businessmen trying to figure our what makes Japan's economy so successful
might do well to visit a Japanese barbershop. Impeccable service isn't extra here, it's included the
price of admission.
1. An attention to detail has made "Japan Inc."
A. a good place for tourists
B. a land of many barbershops
C. a prosperous economic power
D. a famous resort
2. In Japanese barbershops, barbers
A. rush customers out
B. never talk about politics
C. talk with customers and work leisurely
D. are rather impatient with customers
3. Relaxation and sensual pleasure are
A. admitted goals of customers
B. not possible in the busy atmosphere
C. not appreciated by hurried customers
D. not available to customers
4. Because Mr. Tanaka's shop is s popular,
A. reservations are required
B. people wait in line
C. he is opening another new store
D. he becomes famous for that
5. Not only is Mr. Tanaka a good barber, but he is also
A. skilled at conversation
B. an expert in shaving techniques
C. a local politician
D. a psychologist
Questions 6----10 are based on the following passage.
Mincerva was the goddess of wisdom, but on one occasion she did a very foolish thing; she
entered into competition with Juno and Venus for the prize of beauty. It happened thus: At the
nuptials of Peleus and Theetis all the gods were invited with the exception of Eris, or Discord.
Enraged at her exclusion, the goddess threw a golden apple among the guests, with the inscription
(题词), "For the fairest." Thereupon Juno, Venus, and Minerva each claimed the apple. Jupiter, not
willing to decide in so delicate a matter, sent the goddesses to Mount Ida, where the beautiful
shepherd Paris was tending his flocks, and to him was committed the decision. The goddesses
accordingly appeared before him. Juno promised him power and riches, Minerva glory and
renown in war, and Venus the fairest of women his wife, each attempting to bias his decision in
her own favor. Paris decided in favour of Venus and gave her the golden apple, thus making the
two other goddesses his enemies. Under the protection of Venus, Paris sailed to Greece, and was
hospitably received by Menelaus. king of Sparta. Now Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was the very
woman whom Venus had destined for Paris, the fairest of her sex. She had been sought as a bride
by numerous suitors, and before her decision was made known, they all, at the suggestion of
Ulysses, one of their number, took an oath that they would defend her from all injury and avenge
her cause if necessary. She chose Menelaus, and was living with him happily when Paris became
their guest . Paris aided by Venus, persuaded her to elope （私奔）with him, and carried her to Troy,
whence arose the famous Trojan war, the theme of the greatest poems of antiquity, those of Homer
Menelaus called upon his brother chieftains（首领） of Greece to fulfill their pledge, and join
him in his efforts to recover his wife. They generally came forward, but Ulysses, who had married
Penelope, and was very happy in his wife and child, had no disposition to embark in such a
troublesome affair. He therefore hung back and Palamedes was sent to urge him. When Palamedes
arrived at Ithaca Ulysses pretended to be mad. He yoked （用牛轭套住）an ass and an ox together
to the plough and began to sow salt. Palamedes, to try him, placed the infant Telemachus before
the plough, whereupon the father turned the plough aside, showing plainly that he was no madman,
and after that could no longer refuse to fulfill his promise. Being now himself gained for the
undertaking, he lent his aid to bring in other reluctant chiefs, especially Achilles. This hero was
the son of that Thetis at whose marriage the apple of Discord had been thrown among the
goddesses. Thetis was herself one of the immortals, a sea-nymph (海仙女), and knowing that her
son was fated to perish before Troy if he went on the expedition, she endeavoured to prevent his
going . She sent him away to the court of King Lycomedes, and induced him to conceal himself in
the disguise of a maiden among the daughters of the king. Ulysses, hearing he was there, went
disguised as a merchant to the palace and offered for sale female ornaments, among which he had
placed some arms. While the king's daughters were engrossed with the other contents of the
merchant' s pack, Achilles handled the weapons and thereby betrayed himself to the keen eye of
Ulysses, who found no great difficulty in persuading him to disregard his mother's prudent
counsels and join his countrymen in the war.
6. Bulfinch describes Jupiter as unwilling to “decide in so delicate a matter” (lines 6), implying
A. Jupiter is usually heavy-handed
B. any decision is bound to offend someone
C. Jupiter to overly sensitive.
D. the problems are so obscure that no one can judge them.
7. The word disposition (line 22) is used to mean
8. The sowing of salt is used by Bulfinch to show
A. Ulysses's attempt to be found insane
B. the difficulty of cultivating in rocky soil
C. how the tears of the gods created the sea
D. the god's punishment of those who disobey them
9. Bulfinch reveals that Thetis is a sea-nymphy in order to explain
A. why she married Peleus
B. why she dislikes the idea of war
C. the effect of the apple of Discord
D. her ability to predict the future
10. Among the chieftains of Greece apparently are
A. Juno, Venus, and Minerva
B. Paris and Lycomedes
C. Ulysses, Achilles, and Menelaus
D. Eris and Thetis
Questions11-----15 are based on the following passage.
On the whole, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has always treated Mars
with respect. American spacecraft have flown by, orbited and even landed on the Red Planet. What
they've never done is wound it. If scientists ever hope to understand Mars fully, however, they are
going to have to puncture the dry Martian crust to sample the planetary pulp below. Next week
NASA will launch a ship that will begin that process.
The first ship of the two-spacecraft mission --- set to fly Dec. 10---is the Mars Climate
Orbiter. Arriving in September 1999, the spacecraft will enter an orbit of the planet that traces a
path over the Martian poles, allowing it to study the local atmosphere. Its orbit will position it
perfectly to act as a relay satellite for any later ship that may land on the surface. That’s a good
thing, since three weeks or so after the orbiter leaves Earth, NAS will launch another spacecraft,
the more ambitious Mars Polar Lander.
A spindly machine standing 107 cm tall, the lander is set to arrive in December 1999, aiming
to touch down near Mars’ south pole, one of the few sports on the freeze-dried planet that is likely
to contain some water. Just before reaching the Martian atmosphere, the lander will release a pairs
of tapered pods(锥形分离舱) , each about the size of a basketball, made of brittle silica. Plunging
ahead of the ship , the projectiles will free-fall to the surface and strike the ground at 650 km/h.
The pods are designed to shatter on impact, releasing a pair of 18-cm probes. Slamming into
the surface, the probes are supposed to drive themselves 120 cm into the Martian crust. Once
buried, they will deploy tiny drills and begin sampling the chemical makeup of the soil around
them. Scientists believe that chemistry could be remarkably rich. "The surface of Mars has been
pretty well sterilized(消毒) by ultraviolet radiation," says Sam Thurman, the missions
Only minutes after the probes hit the ground, the lander will follow, descending by parachute
and braking engine. Bristling with cameras and sensors, it will study Mars' terrain and weather,
snapping pictures both during its descent and on the surface. It will also carry a microphone to
record for the first time the sound of the Martain wind. More important, the ship will be equipped
with a robotic arm and scoop , much like the arms carried aboard the Viking landers in the 1970s.
Unlike the Vikings, though, which were able to paw just a few feeble cm into the Martian topsoil,
the new ship will dig out a trench nearly 90 cm deep.
How long all this otherworldly hardware will operate is uncertain. The probes, powered by
batteries, should wink out within three days. The lander, with robust solar panels to keep it
humming, could last three months. But even if the systems do not survive that long, their work
could be profound. After all, scientists have spent years studying just the Martian skin; this will be
their first chance to dig a little deeper.
11. We learn from the first paragraph that, in order to have a thorough knowledge of Mars, we
A. to treat Mars with more respect than ever
B. to have more spacecraft orbit the Red Planet
C. to protect the Red Planet more carefully and not to wound it
D. to penetrate the crust of the Red Planet to take Martian samples
12. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
A. The spacecraft that is to arrive in September 1999 contains a pair of tapered pods.
B. Mars Polar Lander will carry out more important missions than Mars Climate Orbiter.
C. The difference between Viking landers and Mars Polar Lander is that the former was unable
to land on Mars.
D. The mission of Mars Climate Orbiter is to study the local atmosphere and Mars terrain,
snapping pictures both during its descent and on the surface.
13. The primary purpose of the passage is to ___.
A. stress the importance of exploring Mars
B. outline the general features of Mars
C. describe in detail the way of landing of Mars Polar Lander
D. introduce the mission of the two spacecraft which are due to launch in 1999.
14. We learn from the passage that ___.
A. Mars Climate Orbiter will serve as a space base for any later ship that may land on the
surface of Mars
B. Mars' south pole is more likely to contain life because it contains water
C. Mars Polar Lander will strike the surface of Mars at 650 km/h
D. the chemical makeup of the soil on the surface of Mars will be similar to that of the earth
15. From the context, we can infer the meaning of "bristling" (line 2, para. 4 ) may be ___.
A. abundant in B. sending out
C. reacting D. taking up
Questions 16----20 are based on the following passage.
An outsider approaches the subject lively, lest civic feelings be bruised. Los Angeles gives
the impression of having erased much of its history by allowing the city's development to run
unchecked. Insiders like Dolores Hayden...pull no punches: "It is...common," she wrote, "for fond
residents to quote Gertrude Stein's sentence about Oakland when summing up urban design in Los
Angeles: "There's no there, there.'" Hayden has also acknowledged that Los Angles is generally
"the first (American city) singled out as having a problem about sense of place." Both statements
come from a handsome brochure-cum-itinerary, drawn up by Hayden, Gail Dubrow, and Carolyn
Flynn to introduce The Power of Place, a local nonprofit group with a mission to retrieve some of
the city's misplaced" there."
Founded by Hayden in 1982, The Power of Place lays special emphasis on redressing an
imbalance in memory---and memorials. As Hayden has pointed out, in 1987 less than half the
population of Los Angeles was Anglo-American; yet almost 98 percent of the city's cultural
historic landmarks were devoted to the history and accomplishments of Anglo-Americans. Even
these personages come from a narrow spectrum of achievers---in Hayden's phrase, "a small
minority of landholders, bankers, business leaders, and their architects" ----almost all of whom
The likeliest explanation for this under-representation may be an urban variation on the
great-man theory of history: History is what public figures do, and by their civic monuments shall
you know them ---especially the structures they designed or built. In Hayden's view, however,
"The task of choosing a past for Los Angeles is a political as well as historic and cultural one, "
and the unexamined preference for architecture as the focus of historic preservation efforts can
slight less conscious but perhaps equally powerful human forces. Hayden's goal has been to
supplement the city's ample supply of mono-cultural landmarks and memorials with others
representing its ethnic and gender-based diversity. Accordingly, some sites need new status as
official land-marks, others need reinterpretation. Other sites no longer contain structures
emblematic of their histories or are located in blighted neighborhoods; these do not readily lend
themselves to resuscitation through renovation and commercial development , as preservationists
have managed elsewhere.
The Power of Place has identified nine places on which to concentrate in the first phase of its
work: development of a walking tour of little-known Los Angeles sites, for which The Power of
Place brochure serves as a guide.
The Power of Place brochure concludes its summary of what is known about each stop on
the walking tour with a postscript called Placemaking, which describes the site's current status and
suggests ways to make it more smelling of its past. For the vineyard/grove complex, the current
situation is not unusual: "Present uses...are commercial and industrial." Then comes word of what
seems to be a minor miracle: "One tall slender grapefruit free...has been preserved and relocated in
the courtyard of the Japanese American Cultural and Community Center..." Suggestions for
recapturing more of the past proposed by The Power of Place include returning orange trees to the
Wolfskill site and installing historical markets on the Vignes site.
16. The author uses the phrase "civic feelings" (line 1 ) to mean the
A. loyalty or faith of a city's residents to their city
B. emotions that breed courtesy and good behavior
C. respect for each other shown by people who think of themselves as civilized
D. defensiveness that city residents sometimes.
17. What is the danger of allowing the development of Los Angeles to "run unchecked"? (line 3 )
A. The roadways will become overrun with traffic.
B. Developers will use up all suitable farming land.
C. Smog will become an even bigger environmental concern.
D. Much of the city's cultural history will be lost to modernization.
18. With which of the following statements about the people memorialized by most existing Los
Angeles monuments would Dolores Hayden be most likely to agree?
I. They were usually of a higher social class than were the people highlighted by The Power
II. Their accomplishments are more conspicuous than are those of the people highlighted by
The Power of Place.
III. They made greater contributions to the economic development of Los Angeles than did
the people highlighted by The Power of Place.
A. I only
B. I, II, and III
C. I and III
D. I and II
19. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Hayden's view on historic
preservation, as those views are described in the passage?
A. Political and economic considerations should have no place in the designation of cultural
and historic landmarks
B. Plants and other natural phenomena make better historic landmarks than do buildings and
other human artistic works.
C. Some parts of history cannot be memorialized in surviving buildings and landmarks, so
new ways must be found to more fully recapture the past.
D. The homes and workplaces of working people should be preserved whenever possible
because the history of working people is more important than that of so-called "great
20. In the author's view, all of the following would most likely be undervalued cultural landmarks
A. trees growing naturally in this place
B. endangered species of animal and plant life
C. historic buildings in old and torn areas
D. city hall
Questions 21----25 are based on the following passage.
Compared to animals, plants present unique problems in demographic studies. The idea of
counting living individuals becomes difficult given perennials that reproduce vegetatively by
sending out runners or rhizomes, by splitting at the stem base, or by producing arching canes that
take root where they touch the ground. In these ways some individuals, given sufficient time, can
extend out over a vast area.
There are five typical plant life spans, and each has a basic associated life form. Annual
plants live for 1 year or less. Their average life span is 1-8 months, depending on the species and
on the environment where they are located (the same desert plant may complete its life cycle in 8
months one year, and in 1 month the next, depending on the amount of rain it receives). Annuals
with extremely short life cycles are classified as ephemeral plants. An example of an ephemeral is
Boerrhaviarepens of the Sahara Desert, which can go from seed to seed in just 10 days. Annuals
are herbaceous, which means that they lack a secondary meristem that produces lateral, woody
tissue. They complete their life cycle after seed production for several reasons: nutrient depletion,
hormone changes, or inability of nonwoody tissue to withstand unfavorable environmental
conditions following the growing season. A few species can persist for more than a year in
uncommonly favorable conditions.
Biennial plants are also herbaceous, but usually live for 2 years. Their first year is spent in
vegetative growth, which generally takes place more below ground than above. Reproduction
occurs in the second year, and this is followed by the completion of the life cycle. Under poor
growing conditions, or by experimental manipulation, the vegetative stage can be drawn out for
more than 1 year.
Herbaceous perennials typically live for 20-30years, although some species have been
known to live for 400-800 years. These plants die back to the root system and root crown at the
end of each growing season. The root system becomes woody, but the above-ground system is
herbaceous. They have a juvenile, vegetative stage for the first 2-8 years, then bloom and
reproduce yearly. Sometimes they bloom only once at the conclusion of their life cycle. Because
herbaceous perennials have no growth rings, it is difficult to age them. Methods that have been
used to age them include counting leaf scars or estimating the rate of spread in tussock (clumped)
Suffrutescent shrubs (hemixyles) fall somewhere between herbaceous perennials and true
shrubs. They develop perennial, woody tissue only near the base of their stems; the rest of the
shoots system is herbaceous and dies back each year. They are small, and are short-lived compared
to true shrubs.
Woody perennials (trees and shrubs) have the longest life spans. Shrubs live on the average
30-50 years. Broadleaf trees (angiosperm) average 200-300 years, and conifer (needles) trees
average 500-1000 years. Woody perennials spend approximately the first 10% of their life span in
a juvenile, totally vegetative state before they enter a combined reproductive and vegetative state,
achieving a peak of reproduction several years before the conclusion of their life cycle.
Regardless of the life span, annual or perennial, one can identify about eight important age
states in an individual plant or population. They are: (1) viable seed, (2) seedling, (3) juvenile, (4)
immature, (5) mature, (6) initial reproductive, (7) maximum vigor (reproductive and vegetative),
and (8) senescent. If a population shows all eight states, it is stable and is most likely a part of a
climax community. If it shows only the last four states, it may not maintain itself and may be part
of a seral community.
21. The author believes that plants present "unique problems in demographic studies" (line 1)
A. they cannot be aged accurately
B. it is difficult to define and identify an individual
C. many have very short lifespans
D. there has been little interest in such studies
22. The best definition of ephemeral (line 5 ) might be
23. Annual and perennial are names of
A. plant life spans
B. plant species
C. woody plants
D. plant age states
24. Paragraph 5 deals mainly with
A. suffrutescent shrubs
B. a form of tree shrub
C. a form of herbaceous perennial
D. a woody biennial
25. Which of the following is a woody perennial?
A. a tulip
B. a fern
C. a strawberry
D. an oak
Questions 26-----30 are based on the following passage.
For much of the world, the death of Richard Nixon was the end of a complex public life.
But researchers who study bereavement wondered if it didn’t also signify the end of a private
grief. Had the former president merely run his fourscore and one, or had he fallen victim to a
pattern that seems to afflict longtime married couples: one spouse quickly following the other
to the grave?
Pat, Nixon’s wife of 53, died last June after a long illness. No one knows for sure whether
her death contributed to his. After all, he was elderly and had a history of serious heart disease.
Researchers have long observed that the death of a spouse particularly a wife is sometimes
followed by the untimely death of the grieving survivor. Historian Will Durant died 13 days
after his wife and collaborator, Ariel; Buckminster Fuller and his wife died just 36 hours apart.
Is this more than coincidence?
“Part of the story, I suspect, is that we men are so used to ladies feeding us and taking care
of us,” says Knul Helsing, an epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health,
“that when we lose a wife we go to pieces. We don’t know how to take care of ourselves.” In
one of several studies Helsing has conducted on bereavement, he found that widowed men
had higher mortality rates than married men in every age group. But, he found that widowers
who remarried enjoyed the same lower mortality rate as men who’d never been widowed.
Women’s health and resilience may also suffer after the loss of a spouse. In a 1987 study
of widows, researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles, and UC, San Diego,
found that they had a dramatic decline in levels of important immune-system cells that fight
off disease. Earlier studies showed reduced immunity in widowers.
For both men and women, the stress of losing a spouse can have a profound effect. “All
sorts of potentially harmful medical problems can be worsened,” says Gerald Davison,
professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. People with high blood
pressure, for example, may see it rise. In Nixon’s case, Davison speculates, “the stroke,
although not caused directly by the stress, was probably hastened by it.” Depression can affect
the surviving spouse’s will to live; suicide rates are elevated in the bereaved, along with
accidents not involving cars.
Involvement in life helps prolong it. Mortality, says Duke University psychiatrist Daniel
Blazer, is higher in older people without a good social-support system, who don’t feel they’re
part of a group or a family, that they “fit in” somewhere. And that’s a more common problem
for men, who tend not to have as many close friendships as women. The sudden absence of
routines can also be a health hazard, says Blazer. “A person who loses a spouse shows
deterioration in normal habits like sleeping and eating,” he says. “They don’t have the other
person to orient them, like “When do you go to bed, when do you wake up, when do you eat,
when do you take your medication, when do you go out to take a walk?” Your pattern is no
longer locked into someone else’s pattern, so it deteriorates.”
While earlier studies suggested that the first six months to a year – or even first week –
were times of higher mortality for the bereaved, some newer studies find no special
vulnerability in this initial period. Most men and women, of course do not as a result of the
loss of a spouse. And there are ways to improve the odds. A strong sense of separate identity
and lack of over-dependency during the marriage are helpful. Adult sons and daughters,
siblings and friends need to pay special attention to a newly widowed parent. They can make
sure that he or she is socializing, getting proper nutrition and medical care, expressing
emotion and above all, feeling needed and appreciated.
26. It is known from the passage that Richard Nixon died at the age of .
A 73 B 81 C 77 D 65
27. According to researchers who study bereavement, Richard Nixon’s death might
A caused by his heart disease B indirectly linked to his wife’s death
C the inevitable result of old age D caused by an unexplainable accident
28. In his research on bereavement, Helsing found that .
A remarried men live healthier lives B unmarried men have the longest life
C remarried widowers do not have higher mortality rates than those who have never been
D widows were unaffected by their spouses’ death
29. According to the passage a spouse’s death can lead the surviving one to .
A lose his or her friends B diminish social activitiesC be vulnerable to illness D reject
his or her children’s care
30.It is suggested in the passage that widowers or widows suffer from the death of their
spouses because they are .
A unprepared for independence during the marriage B incapable of taking care of
themselves during the marriage
C unwilling to socialize with others during the marriage D too indulgent during the
Translate the following passages into Chinese
In the eighteenth century the word "revolution" came to have a new meaning. Traditionally it
meant only a change in the composition of government and not necessarily a violent one.
Observers could speak of a "revolution" occurring at a particular court when one minister replaced
another. After 1789 this changed. People came to see that year as the beginning of a new sort of
revolution, a real rupture with the past, characterized by violence, by limitless possibilities for
fundamental change, social, political and economic, and began to think, too, that this new
phenomenon might transcend national boundaries and have something universal and general about
it. Even those who disagreed very much about the desirability of such a revolution could none the
less agree that this new sort of revolution existed and that it was fundamental to the politics of
their age.It would be misleading to seek to group all the political changes of this period under the
rubric of "revolution" conceived in such terms as these . But we can usefully speak of an "age of
revolution" for two reasons.
The idea that public status comes with a loss of privacy is unpersuasive. Far
more persuasive is the thought that a person’s privacy may be breached if the
information disclosed serves a proven public interest. A code of press practice
specifies the various conditions that could count as involving a genuine public interest
in publication, such as detecting or exposing crime, protecting public health,
preventing the public from being misled. Showing public officials to be corrupt,
grossly inefficient, criminally negligent, or dishonest is certainly in the public’s
interest, provided that these failings bear directly on their performance of their public
duties. Thus, for example, a revealing that a minister is a highly paid non-executive
director of a company which regularly seeks contracts with the government is a matter
for public concern. However, the majority of cases where privacy is breached touch
on matters of sexual morality and it is much harder to see how the public interest is
served by their disclosure.
Between 1500 and 1800, significant changes took place in the way educated
Europeans saw their society. Important scientific discoveries were made and the
enlightenment brought a new sense of responsibility and reason. In sprite of such
changes, however, in the middle of the eighteenth century most people in the world
(and perhaps most Europeans, too) could still believe that history would go on much
as it seemed always to have done. The weight of the past was everywhere enormous
and often it was immovable: some of the European efforts to shake it off have been
touched upon, but nowhere outside Europe was even the possibility of doing so
grasped. Though in many parts of the world a few people's lives had begun to be
revolutionized by contact with Europeans, most of it was unaffected and much of it
was untouched by such contamination of traditional ways.
Modern science has opened up the path for the progress of production techniques
and determined the direction of their development. Many new instruments of
production and technological processes first see the light of day in the scientific
laboratories. A series of newborn industries have been founded on the basis of
newly-emerged disciplines of science and technology. Of course there are, and there
will be, many theoretical research topics with no practical application in plain sight
for the time being. However a host of historical facts have proved that once a major
breakthrough is scored in theoretical research, it means tremendous progress for
production and technology sooner or later.to buy more, thus helping to sell the
surplus which is developing.
Section Two Translation from Chinese into English (20 points)