标准时间 30 minutes
Part I Writing Part I Writing
自测用时 __ minutes
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay. You should start your
essay with a brief description of the picture and then express your views on “ Life can’t be
restarted”. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
键词life can’t be restarted, 确定作文要求谈论的话题为“人生不可以重来”。行文构思可以如下安排：首先简
“Whenever something goes wrong, I just push this 第二段：指出生命的重要意义，从两方面分析人们应该如何正确面对人生：一方面，在
little button and restart. I wish my whole life was like that!”
Life Can’t Be Restarted
Life Can’t Be Restarted
 In the picture, a woman sits in front of a computer, with her husband stand-  描绘漫画内容
ing behind her. As the woman pushes the “Restart” button, she sighs with emotion
how she wishes her life could also be restarted.  Obviously, the picture reminds  指出图画寓意
us that no one stands to gain a second life.
 Life is so precious and priceless that we have to treat it seriously.  On  指出由图画得到的启示
the one hand, under no circumstance can we do harm to or terminate our lives.   从两方面指出应该如何对待
As a Chinese proverb goes, “our body, hair and skin are all inherited from our parents, 人生
so we dare not to damage them.”  On the other hand, we are also obligated to set  引用《孝经》名句 ：“身体
goals for our life and strive to achieve them. A waste of time will result in nothing but fail- 发肤，受之父母，不敢毁伤。”
ure and regret.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________  Considering the truth mentioned above, I think everyone needs to think  结合图片，表达个人观点
______________________________________________________________________________________________________ over the meaning of his own life and make the best of it.
标准时间 30 minutes
Part II Listening Comprehension
自测用时 __ minutes Part II Listening Comprehension
1. W: I have got a certificate from a secretarial school, and I also won a medal at a typing contest.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the M: OK, please leave your references and resume here, and I will give you a reply as soon as possible.
Q: What is the woman most probably doing?
end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. D)。选项均以动词-ing开头表明，本题可能考查某人正在进行的行为动作。
Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question 2. M: Hello, this is Henry Conlon. May I speak to my wife, please?
W: She’s showing a customer a new car that he ordered. Would you mind waiting a while?
there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), Q: What kind of work does Mrs Conlon do?
C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on B) she
3. M: Why don’t you suggest Dave that he at least improve his habits for showing up late to class?
Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre. W: When do you think he’ll listen to someone?
Q: What does the woman imply?
1. A) Sitting for a contest. C) Ordering a typing machine. A)。根据意思相反的两个选项中有一个可能是答案的命题规律，把答案锁定在A) 和D) 之间。
B) Making an appointment. D) Applying for a secretary’s post. 4. W: Oh, well, how can I manage to get another signature? Say, what’s the bell for?
M: That’s the signal to get back to our seats. The curtain will be going up on the next act in a few minutes.
2. A) She is a garage worker. C) She is a taxi driver. Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place?
B) She is a car dealer. D) She is a body guard.
5. M: My manager said we’re going to have some lay-offs soon.
W: Will you be let go? If so, then we’ll need to borrow some money to pay the bills.
3. A) Dave will never listen. C) She thinks Dave is insane. Q: What does the woman want to know?
B) She doesn’t know Dave. D) She thinks Dave will listen one day. B)。选项均涉及男士的情况表明，本题可能考查女士对男士的疑问，女士的话为听音重点。
6. M: Please excuse the mess. I haven’t had any time to clean.
4. A) In a theatre. C) In a classroom. W: What mess? You should see how I left my room this morning.
Q: What does the woman imply?
B) In a cinema. D) In a supermarket. A)。选项均为以she开头的完整的句子表明，女士的话为听音重点。
5. A) When the man will leave. C) Whether the man has the money. 7. M: My computer doesn’t work properly. I wonder if I can use yours for a while.
W: You certainly could if I had one, but I gave mine to my daughter last month.
B) Whether the man will lose his job. D) How the man feels about the news. Q: What does the woman mean?
A)。根据意思相反的两个选项中有一个可能是答案的命题规律，把答案锁定在A) 和B) 之间。A)，B)和C)均
6. A) She hasn’t cleaned her room, either. 以she开头，D)以her开头表明，女士的话为听音重点。
8. M: The faculty already knows that attending the seminars is a requirement for completing the programme. Why do I
B) She left her room on time this morning. need to sign for it?
C) She can help the man clean up his room. W: It just works that way. They just want to make sure nothing is off track.
Q: What does the woman mean?
D) She doesn’t know the mess the man have made in her room. B)。各选项均含有signing以及A) 中的necessary表明，对话与签到是否必要有关。
7. A) She has no computer at the moment. C) She will lend the man her computer. —— Conversation One ——
B) She has only one computer. D) Her computer has broken down. 【整体预测】本组对话四道题选项中的 food 以及多次出现的 cafeteria 表明，对话很可能与学校餐厅有关，可能
8. A) The signing is very necessary. C) The signing is required.
M: Hi, Grace. Mind if I eat lunch with you?
B) The signing is just a reassurance. D) The signing is a way to monitor abuse. W: No, Mr Evans, not at all.
M: Thanks. I just heard that you’re studying nutrition and you’ve got quite a bit of experiences working in the cafeteria, so
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard. I wonder if you will be interested in a small project we are doing this term.
W: What’s the project all about?
M: More and more students have been deciding not to buy meals here and we want to attract them back. / So I want
9. A) The size of the cafeteria. to hear what students would like. Your job would be to find out.
B) The food served in the cafeteria. W: Well, if the menus were changed, then maybe I wouldn’t have to listen to so much criticism.
M: That makes you perfect for the job. Would you be interested?
C) The cost of meals in the cafeteria. W: I’m not sure. What sorts of changes are you thinking of?
M:  I’d like to make some changes in the way we prepare our food. For example, just look at what we have to choose
D) Career opportunities in cafeterias. from today. You got a fried hamburger and I got fried chicken.  They both contain too much fat.
10. A) Inform students of the disadvantages of fried food. W: But you’d better not get rid of them. They’re everybody’s favourite.
M: Well, we can certainly keep them, but we need to give the people who are health-conscious some choices. For example, 
B) Find other students who will work in the cafeteria. we could also prepare chicken without the fatty skin and serve it on some rice with a light sauce. Do you think that would
appeal to students?
C) Ask students to try a new dish he has made. W: Well, I’d like that. You’re right. You’d better find out what others think. Sorry, I’ve got to get back to work.  I’d like to
hear more though. I’ll drop by your office later.
D) Collect students’ opinions about meals. M: OK, see you then.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
11. A) Use less sauce on the food. C) Make some of the meals less fatty.
9. What are the two speakers talking about?
B) Serve some less expensive food. D) Stop serving hamburgers and fried chicken. B)。选项均为名词词组且概括性强表明，本题可能考查对话所讨论的话题，涉及餐厅的某个方面。
10. What does the man want the woman to do?
12. A) Very doubtful. C) Somewhat curious. 11. What does the man suggest the cafeteria do?
B) Quite annoyed. D) Indifferent. C)。选项中的use less sauce和less fatty表明，本题可能与改变食物的做法有关。
12. What does the woman think of the man’s project?
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
—— Conversation Two ——
13. A) A standard unit for measuring weight. C) The value of precious metals.
【整体预测】本组对话三道题选项中的standard unit，measuring weight和metal表明，对话可能与一种量器有关。
B) How to care for precious metals. D) Using the metric system.
W: Doctor Thomas? This is Keith Bradley from The Daily News.  I’d like to ask you some questions about the new off
14. A) To measure amounts of rainfall. C) To observe changes in the atmosphere. icial standard weight that you purchased.
M: I’d be happy to help you. What would you like to know?
B) To check the accuracy of scales. D) To calculate the density of other metals. W: First of all, how is the standard weight used?
M:  Well, the people in our department use it to check the scales all over the country. The Department of Weights and Measures —
15. A) It is too high for such a light weight. we’re a government agency — it’s our responsibility to see that all the scales measure a kilogram accurately. So this is the weight
we use to adjust the scales.
B) It is difficult to judge the value of such an object. W: How did you check the scales before?
M: We have an old standard weight that we used to use. It had to be replaced because it was imprecise. You see, it was
C) It is a small amount to pay for so much precious metal. made of poor-quality metal that was too porous — it absorbed too much moisture.
W: Oh, so when the weather was humid, it weighed more. And when it was dry, it weighed less.
D) It is reasonable for an object with such an important function. M: Exactly. And that variation can affect the standards of the whole country. So our department had the new weight made
out of higher-quality metal.
Section B W: How much did it cost?
M: About forty-five thousand dollars.
W: Forty-five thousand dollars! For a one-kilogram weight! That’s more expensive than gold.  Is it really worth that much?
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will M:  I’m sure it is. Industries depend on our government agency to monitor the accuracy of scales, so that when they buy and
hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. sell their products there’s one standard. Think of the drug industry, for example. Those companies rely on high-accuracy scales
to manufacture and package medicine.
After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices Questions 13 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
13. What is the conversation mainly about?
marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with A)。选项概括性强表明，本题可能考查对话话题。
14. What is the weight used for?
a single line through the centre. B)。四个选项均为不定式表明，本题可能与目的或用途有关。
15. What does Doctor Thomas probably think about the cost of the new weight?
Passage One D)。选项中的too high，the value和a small amount to pay for表明，问题可能与某人对某物价格的看法有关。
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard. Section B
—— Passage One ——
16. A) The consequence of stress. C) The realities of stress. 【整体预测】预览四道题各选项，并结合 16 题和 19 题中多次出现 stress 可推知，本文应与压力有关。
B) The negative effect of stress. D) The positive effect of stress.
 Stress comes in all shapes and sizes, and has become pervasive — it seems to penetrate everything and every-
17. A) By finding out how to get rid of it. C) By getting more of it. body. It’s hard to get through a day without hearing or reading something about stress. Some doctors refer to stress as some
kind of new plague. However, numerous surveys confirm that the problem has progressively risen since the 1980s. Why all
B) By exercising vigorously. D) By getting the right amount of it. the disorder? After all, stress is an unavoidable consequence of life. Without stress, there would be no life.  However,
just as distress can cause disease, there are good stresses that balance this, and promote wellness. Increased stress results
in increased productivity — up to a point. However, this level differs for each of us. It’s very much like the stress on a vi-
18. A) Health. C) A disaster. olin string. Not enough produces a dull, harsh sound. Too much makes sharp, annoying noise, or causes the string to snap.
B) Training. D) Music. However, just the right degree can create magnificent tones.  Similarly, we all need to find the proper level of stress
that promotes optimal performance, and enables us to make harmonious music. Good health is more than just the absence
19. A) Teach people how to reduce stress. of illness. Rather, it is a very robust state of physical and emotional well-being that acknowledges the importance and in-
separability of mind-body relationships.  In the next programme, I hope you will join me in the pursuit of learning how
B) Teach people where stress comes from. to exploit stress, so that it can work for you, and make you more productive, rather than self-destructive.
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.
C) Teach people how to use stress effectively. 16. What aspect of stress is the talk mainly about?
D) Teach people how to be more productive. 17. How can we deal with stress according to the doctor?
Passage Two 18. According to the speaker, what is a sign of good stress?
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard. 19. What will the doctor do in the next programme?
20. A) She isn’t old enough. C) She cannot speak French.
—— Passage Two ——
B) She hasn’t graduated. D) She prefers to work in a travel agency.
【整体预测】本篇短文三道题选项中的 she，isn’t old enough，hasn’t graduated 和 worked in a hospital 表明，短文很
21. A) Having some experience of hotel work. C) Knowing how to fly a plane. 可能与 she 的工作有关。
B) Having ever worked in a hospital. D) Knowing foreign languages. Janet’s sister is a stewardess for a famous international airline, and Janet wants to become one too. Of course she is still
too young.  The minimum age for a stewardess is twenty and Janet is only just over sixteen.
22. A) They agree with her. C) They advise her to change her mind. For the moment she has taken a job in an office. But she is going to attend evening classes. In particular, she wants to im-
prove her French and she has also decided to take up a second language. This is because  foreign languages are essential
B) They say she can earn a lot. D) They think it is difficult to be a stewardess. for a stewardess.
Later on, when she is about eighteen, she plans to work in a hotel for a while. This will not be difficult to arrange be-
Passage Three cause one of her uncles is the manager of a big London hotel. Among other things, she proposes to work in the kitchen and
the dining-room. This will be especially valuable experience because an important part of a stewardess’s work is to serve
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard. and feed the passengers.
Finally, if she has the time, she will go and work in a hospital for a while. Again this will provide more valuable ex-
23. A) She was angry with him. perience.
You see, Janet has made up her mind and she is preparing for her career very carefully. But it was not easy for her to
B) She was making fun of him. decide.  She asked a large number of people and most of them gave her conflicting advice!
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
C) She wanted the whole class to follow him. 20. Why doesn’t Janet work as a stewardess now?
D) She wanted him to learn about the other side of truck driving. 21. What is the essential demand for stewardess?
24. A) He just got more homework to do. 22. How do most people respond when Janet tells them of her career choice?
C)。选项中的They agree...和 They think...表明，问题可能与they对某事的观点态度有关。
B) He was laughed at by the whole class. —— Passage Three ——
C) He didn’t think his ambition could come true. 【整体预测】本篇短文三道题选项中的 truck driving，homework，ambition 和 students 表明，短文可能与老师和
D) He would not be able to become a truck driver. 学生对未来工作的讨论有关，其中涉及卡车司机的工作。
25. A) She was unfit for her position. C) She always did something strange. The other day in school, we were discussing jobs. Our teacher, Mrs Bolt said that career was very important and that
it was never too early to think about your life’s work. Most of the boys really were not too sure about what they wanted to
B) She was unkind to her students. D) She was a teacher with ripe experience. be. But I knew exactly what I wanted to be, and when Mrs Bolt asked me, I replied, “A truck driver.”
“A truck driver?” repeated Mrs Bolt. “Why do you want to be one, Tom?” “Because truck drivers are always on the
move. They do not have to sit at desks all day. They are out on the road and they see a lot of the country. The pay is good,
Section C too. And you never have any homework.”  The class laughed.
“Well, Tom,” answered Mrs Bolt. “You certainly sound quite enthusiastic. I guess that you don’t like sitting at a desk
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the or doing homework. Is that correct, Tom?” “Yes, I guess so,” I said.
“Well, since you are so interested in becoming a truck driver, I think you should look into the field a little further.  I
first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for want you to go to the library and take out a book on truck driving. And I want you to write a paper on it and hand it in at the
the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just end of the month.”
That’s the last time I’ve ever told anybody my secret ambition.
heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. Why did Mrs Bolt suggest Tom write a book report?
have written. D)。选项中的she，angry with him，making fun of him和wanted the whole class to…, wanted him to learn表明，
In recent years, more and more foreigners are involved in the teaching programmes of the United 24. Why wouldn’t Tom tell about his ambition any more?
B)。选项中的he，just got more homework，was laughed，ambition，come true和would not be able to表明，本题
States. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of using foreign 26. in teaching positions 可能考查he无法实现某种抱负的原因。
have to be considered, of course. It can be said that the foreign background that makes the faculty 25. What can we infer about Mrs Bolt?
D)。选项中的unfit，unkind和a teacher with ripe experience表明，问题可能是对she进行评价。
member from abroad an asset also creates problems of 27. , both for the university and for
the 28. . The foreign research scholar usually isolates himself in the laboratory as a means of 26. faculty。意为“教员”。空前的形容词foreign提示，本空应填名词（短语）。前句提到越来越多的外国人参
protection; however, what he needs is to be fitted into a highly organised university system quite 与美国的教学项目，本句紧接着说“在教学岗位上使用外国… … 的优势和劣势必须要考虑”，显然，本空内
29. that at home. He 30. differences in his daily work in philosophy, arrangements of 27. adjustment。意为“调整，调节”。空前的problems和of提示，本空应填名词（短语）。下文的adjustments对本
courses and methods of teaching. Both the 31. professor and his students lack background in 28. individual。意为“个人，个体”。both... and和空前的the提示，本空应填名词（短语），与university在语义上并
each other’s cultures. Some concept of what is already in the minds of American students is required 列，指代外国教师。
29. different from。意为“与……不同”。空前的副词quite提示，本空应填形容词（短语）。
by the foreign professor. While helping him to 32. his new environment, the university must 30. is faced with。意为“面对”。分析句子结构可知，句子缺少谓语。结合空前的主语he及文章使用的是一般现
also make certain adjustments in order to take full advantage of what the newcomer can offer. It isn’t 31. visiting。意为“访问的”。visiting professor意为“来访教授”。空前的the和空后的professor提示，本空应填
always known how to make 33. use of foreign faculty, especially at smaller colleges. This is 形容词（短语），表示“外国的”教授。
32. adapt himself to。意为“使他适应……”。空前的动词不定式小品词to和空后的his new environment提示，本
thought to be a field where 34. study is called for. The 35. of such a study will be of 空应填原形动词（短语）。
value to colleges and universities with foreign faculty. 34. further。意为“更多的，进一步的”。空后的名词study提示，本空应填形容词（短语）。
标准时间 40 minutes
Part III Reading Comprehension
自测用时 __ minutes Part III Reading Comprehension
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word
for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read 说明了劳动妇女的地位逐渐受到重视。
the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is
identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer
Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the 搬上台面。然而，从根本上说，妇女节不是搞一天活动就结束了。真正的挑战在于那种自然涌动的情感——在3
bank more than once. 在南非这样的国家里，人们在每年的8月9日举办各种活动庆祝全国妇女节。8月9日的妇女节标志着1945年两万名
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage. 些国家如今还会在8月进行庆祝，具体方式是举办仪式提升妇女在政治和决策性职位中的地位，并且授予她们荣
Women’s Day marks the role of women in both the past and the present. It was started 世纪60年代妇女运动期间，妇女节的纪念活动才再度复苏，但参加纪念活动的不是妇女节专门的社会团体。1981
to 36 the importance of working women and bring their problems to 37 . However, 38 the 并庆祝了妇女对美国历史和文化做出的各种巨大贡献。
day is not a one-day agenda. The real challenge lies in the natural flow of feelings — honouring and
celebrating womanhood on a particular March 8 only to forget its importance the next day Women’s Day。根据下文可知，此句主要讲Women’s Day对妇女产生的积极影响，而备选动词中只有J) highlight
is 39 . In countries like South Africa, the people celebrate the national Women’s Day on 9 August （突出）符合句意。highlight the importance of working women意为“突出劳动妇女的重要性”。
every year with a variety of events. Women’s Day on 9 August marks the day, in 1945, when 词和动词原形，只有E) light用在此处最为合适，bring sth. to light为固定短语，意为“使……公开”。故答案
20,000 women 40 on the Union Buildings in Pretoria to protest against one of the cornerstones 38.【解析】I)。句子不缺少主要成分，所填词很可能是副词。备选项中的副词有H) increasingly（日益，愈加）
和I) essentially（本质上）。本段虽然提到历史但没有升级的含义，所以应排除H) increasingly，而选择I)
of apartheid — the passed laws. The countries will nowadays celebrate the month of August, by a essentially。本句大意是“从根本上说，妇女节不是搞一天活动就结束了”。
ceremony 41 women in politics and decision-making positions, and awarding them certificates 39.【解析】K)。空前动词提示所填词可能为动词的分词形式或形容词。上一句指出妇女节并不是搞一天活动就
结束了，这表明妇女的重要性应该时时刻刻受到重视。所以本句中的forget its importance the next day（第二天
of honour. International Women’s Day was 42 in the United States during the 1910s and 1920s, 就忘记了妇女的重要性）显然与文章本意相违背。由此可以判断所填词应表达否定含义，备选项中符合要求
but then 43 . It was revived during the women’s movement in the 1960s, but without its socialist 40.【解析】G)。分析句子结构可知，所填词应在句中充当谓语动词，再结合句中的时间状语in 1945可知，所填
associations. In 1981, the US Congress passed a 44 establishing National Women’s History 词应为动词的过去式。句中的不定式短语to protest against…表示的是20,000 women 40 on the Union Buildings
in Pretoria的目的，结合备选项中的动词过去式可知，符合本句句意的为C) paraded（游行）和G) marched（游
Week. Since its founding, the National Women’s History Project has recognised and celebrated the 行示威），但这二者中能与on构成合理搭配的只有G) marched。march on意为“向……推进，向前进”。
rich and 45 contributions of women to the history and culture of the United States. 的只有B) celebrating和N) promoting。本文主要讲的是妇女节对妇女的积极影响，promoting意为“提升”，
A) declined I ) essentially women构不成合理的动宾搭配，故可排除B) celebrating。
B) celebrating J ) highlight 42.【解析】D)。空前的动词was提示所填词可能为形容词或动词的分词形式。备选形容词和动词分词中只有D)
C) paraded K ) disrespectful commemorated符合句意及要求，并且能与前面的In countries like South Africa, the people celebrate…相呼应，故
D ) commemorated L ) diminished 答案为D) commemorated（庆祝）。
E) light M) varied 43.【解析】A)。空格所在的分句省略了主语International Women’s Day，由此可知所填词在句中充当谓语动词。根据
下一句中的It was revived可知，International Women’s Day曾经衰落过。故答案为A) declined（衰败，衰落）。
F ) resolution N) promoting 44.【解析】F)。空前的不定冠词a及空后的现在分词establishing提示所填词应为名词。根据句中的the US Congress和
G) marched O ) determination establishing National Women’s History Week可知，建立National Women’s History Week最有可能是the US Congress的一项
H) increasingly 决议。备选名词中有“决议”含义的只有F) resolution，故为答案。O) determination通常指“顽强的意志力”。
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each
statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph
from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than A)段提出环境暴露是影响健康的一个较重要的因素。
once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the
corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2. 本文主要介绍有关环境 B) F)
Want to Know Your Disease Risk? Check Your Exposome 家对此情况的研究和取 G)段主要介绍专家们的研究所取得的成果。
A) When it comes to health, which is more important, nature or nurture? You may well think your H)、I)段主要介绍了对监测人们接触环境污染物的可佩戴的无线感应器的研
genes are a more important predictor of health and ill health. Not so fast. In fact, it transpires (得 究和应用情况。
知) that our everyday environment outweighs our genetics, when it comes to measuring our risk
of disease. The genome is out — welcome the exposome (环境暴露). 全文翻译
B) “The exposome represents everything a person is exposed to in the environment, that’s not in the 想知道疾病风险在哪里吗？检测一下环境暴露问题
genes,” says Stephen Rappaport, environmental health scientist at the University of California, A) 就健康而言，自然和营养哪个更重要些呢？你也许认为，你的基因是预测健康和疾病的一个更为重要的因
Berkeley. That includes stress, diet, lifestyle choices, recreational and medicinal drug use and 素。不要这么快下结论。 事实上，就评估疾病风险而言，我们得知，每天的生活环境要比我们的基因更
infections, to name a few. “The big difference is that the exposome changes throughout life 重要。关注基因已经过时了，考虑一下环境暴露问题吧。
as our bodies, diets and lifestyles change,” he says. While our understanding of the human
genome has been growing at an exponential (迅速发展的) rate over the last decade, it is
not as helpful as we hoped in predicting diseases. “Genes only contribute 10 per cent to
the overall disease burden,” says Rappaport. “Knowing genetic risk factors can prove 能帮助我们预测疾病。拉帕波特说：“基因对整个疾病的影响仅仅占十分之一。” 英国伦敦帝国学院的杰里
absolutely futile (无用的),” says Jeremy Nicholson at Imperial College London. He points 米·尼科尔森认为：“仅知道基因风险因素完全无济于事。”他提到了在美国波士顿布莱根妇女医院工作的尼
to work by Nina Paynter at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, who investigated 娜·佩因特的工作成果。她对影响心脏病的101种基因标记进行过研究，历经12年跟踪调查了一万九千多名妇
the effects of 101 genetic markers implicated in heart disease. After following over 19,000 女后发现，在其调查的这群人中，这些基因标记并不能预测心脏病的发病率。
women for 12 years, she found these markers were not able to predict anything about the C) 另一方面，在很大程度上，环境影响仍是个未知数。 提出环境暴露这一概念的国际癌症研究组织主
incidence of heart disease in this group.
C) On the other hand, the impact of environmental influences is still largely a mystery. “There’s an
imbalance between our ability to investigate the genome and the environment,” says Chris Wild, 综合分析个人的整个暴露历史。”他希望对暴露问题更好的了解能够更有助于研究影响疾病的各种风险
director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, who came up with the idea of the 因素。
在个人成长阶段，很可能存在一些有关暴露的关键时期。 例如，从出生到 岁期间就被认为是非常重要的
exposome. In reality, most diseases are probably caused by a combination of the two, which is D)  3
where the exposome comes in. “The idea is to have a comprehensive analysis of a person’s full
exposure history,” says Wild. He hopes a better understanding of exposures will shed a brighter