s:13804:" 北 京 林 业 大 学
2004 年硕士研究生入学考试 翻译和写作 试题
I. Translate the following passage into Chinese. (50 points)
We think of retirement as something for those who, having put in years of service,
yearn for a pasture with holes and flags in it. But after five or ten years near the
beginning of things, when every challenge seemed terrifying and every situation filled
with opportunity for advancement, I have felt one thing very strongly: Work is for the
very young and the very old. Retirement should be reserved for those who can enjoy
it—those old enough to have achieved some wisdom and perspective but young
enough to feel the blood in their veins and possibly somebody else’s too.
It’s a simple idea, easy to execute. After a minimum tenure of employment—say,
ten to 12 years, the worker, in the full flush of adult vigor and capacity, would be
required to take a retirement package that included a decent severance, a guaranteed
stipend, and an adequate continuation of health insurance. After a time the lucky
individual, having enjoyed years of carefree retirement activities, at the age of 58 or
so, would be expected to return to the ranks of the employed and work until unable to
do so any longer, at which point he or she would be expected to get lost.
Think of the benefits to every generation! The young and zesty would have a
host of jobs at their disposal and no pesky 40- and 50-year-olds blocking their way up
the ladder. Those proud, mature folks in the high summer of their years would roam
the planet doing as they wished. Perhaps the most blessed in this plan are those in
their 50s, 60s, and 70s, who are now consigned to the rag bin of demography just
when they want to work most. In my plan this group reenters the workforce with
amazing energy, a lifetime of experience, and a full understanding of how boring life
without work can be. What a boon to any office this industrious, sociable group would
be, laboring harder and eating and drinking lighter than their younger counterparts,
and willing to kiss the feet of any organization giving them something meaningful to
do! Anyone who has spent an afternoon at a retirement village knows what I mean.
II. Translate the following passage into English. (50 points)
III. Writing (50 points)
Write a passage of 200 words about the most emotionally significant moment in
You should supply a title for the passage.
Read the following passage carefully, and then write a summary of 100 words.
Take care to give a connection of ideas.
How Farmers Sowed Languages
The homelands of the Indo-European languages stretch from Dublin to Delhi.
But Hadza, a tongue that is one of a kind, is spoken by just 1,000 people near Lake
Eyasi in Tanzania. Why do the world's languages have so uneven a distribution pattern?
Two researchers theorize that much of the answer has to do with events that began
10,000 years ago, as crop plants were domesticated.
Agriculture has long been invoked to explain the spread of the Indo-European
languages. Now, Jared Diamond of UCLA and Peter Bellwood of the Australian
National University in Canberra have applied the concept to 15 major language
families. Their article appeared in the April 25 issue of Science.
The premise is that when humans lived as hunters and gatherers, their
populations were small, because wild game and berries can support only so many
people. But after an agriculture system was devised, populations expanded, displacing
the hunter-gatherers around them and taking their language with them. On this theory,
whatever language happened to be spoken in a region where a crop plant was
domesticated expanded along with the farmers who spoke it.
Even if the farmers interbred with the hunter-gatherers whose land they took,
genes can mix, but languages cannot. So the hunters would in many cases have
adopted the farmers' language. That is why languages "record these processes of
demographic expansion more clearly than the genes," Bellwood said.
One of the clearest expansions, perhaps because it occurred most recently, can be
found in the 1,436 languages in the Niger-Congo or Bantu family, the world's largest.
About 5,000 years ago, Bantu speakers in western Africa who cultivated the yam
started spreading out from their homeland. One group traveled south, the other first
east to the Great Lakes and then south. The two migrations spread the Bantu
languages through a third of the continent, displacing the Khoisan, or click-language
speakers, who were hunter-gatherers.
The agricultural regions of China made up the homelands of three major families,
Diamond and Bellwood wrote. One was Austro-Asiatic, which includes a swath of
languages now spoken in Cambodia, southern China, India, Malaya and Thailand.
Another was the Tai group, which includes Lao and Thai. A third was the
In the New World, the farmers who domesticated maize and beans in Mexico
expanded northward to the area that became the southwestern United States,
spreading the Uto-Aztecan family of languages. And Austronesian, a group of 1,236
languages, is the second largest, after the Niger-Congo. The founder language was
spoken by rice growers in southern China who colonized Taiwan before 3000 B.C.
and spread through Polynesia, reaching New Zealand by A.D. 1200.
The Science article endorses a bold suggestion for the origin of Japanese. The
writers say it is derived from the language of rice farmers who arrived from Korea
around 400 B.C. and spread their agriculture northward from a southern island,
Kyushu. Modern Japanese is not at all like Korean. But Korea had three ancient
kingdoms, each with its own language. Modern Korean derived from the ancient
Sillan. Japanese may have evolved from another ancient Korean language, Koguryo,
the article says.
Just as China was a powerhouse of new language families in the East, the Fertile
Crescent, the arc running through Lebanon and through Iraq, was the source of at least
three major language families in the West, the authors say. One was Dravidian, a
language family now centered on southern India.
A second was the Indo-European family, which includes English, French and
German in its Western branch and Iranian and Hindi in its Eastern branches. A third
may have been Afro-Asiatic, a family that includes ancient Egyptian and Semitic
languages like Arabic and Hebrew.
The best-known movements of people are those of conquering armies like the
Mongols, who overran much of Eurasia. The Mongols, because of their rulers' harems,
left behind many more genes than conquering armies usually do, but their language
vanished from their conquered territories. (The New York Times)
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy.
Failure to follow the instructions will result in a loss of marks.
I. 英译汉（50 分）
生活津贴和足够的健康保险。到 58 岁前后，这些幸运的家伙已经享受了多年无
如今被看作是废人却仍想发挥余热的 50 、60 、70 多岁的人。按我的这一设想，
II. 汉译英（50 分）
Traditional letter writing is a process of writing the letter, addressing the
envelope, affixing the postage, and sending them out. Though taking much longer
than the e-mail, exquisiteness can be felt in the process, and the writer’s passion is
incorporated into the pen and paper. At the same time, you can also imagine the way
the other party will receive the letter. This long process prolongs the mentality of
being delightful or melancholy. An email, however, is at the click of the mouse,
always accomplished in haste and in a business fashion. The tidy characters that line
up on the screen windows look exactly like the vegetable and fruit grown nice and
beautiful with the help of chemical fertilizers. In this way, the internal verve of the
Chinese handwriting and the temperament of the writer become totally absent. We
often describe women’s handwriting as “graceful”, but on screen display, even the
difference that handwriting makes about the sex of the writer has disappeared.
I don’t mean to say that the computer is repulsive as I myself am enjoying its
convenience. Nevertheless, when I intend to write to my intimate ones, I still prefer
pen and paper, due to my belief that handwriting actually conveys life and passion to
the extent that as I write part of my life is carried away with it. For me keyboarding is
no more than dictating to another person what you hope to write—a situation much
like the experience of making a telephone call while you can clearly hear the breath of
the other side but are unable to speak out what you intend to say, so finally you resort
to writing them a letter instead. It is amazing that difference in form and instrument
will make such a difference in the resulted content.
III. 写作（50 分）
A theory concerning the uneven distribution of the world’s languages is put
forward by J. Diamond and P. Bellwood in an article published in April 25 issue of
Science. According to the two researchers, the spread of those languages was caused
by domestication of crop plants and the migration of the farmers 10,000 years ago
following the establishment of the agriculture system, which caused the expansion of
population. The conclusion was reached based on their analysis of 15 major language
families, including many of the languages spoken in Africa, Asia, Europe, Arab, part
of the United States, and New Zealand.